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Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia! Baul Shamrat Lalon

Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia

Fakir Lalon Shah.jpg
Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia
Lalon Mazar, Kushtia, Bangladesh.JPG
Lalon Mazar, Kushtia, Bangladesh.JPG

Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia (Bengali: লালন) also known as Lalon Sain, Lalon Shah, Lalon Fakir or Mahatma Lalon (c. 1772 – 17 October 1890; Bengali: 1 Kartik, 1179),[1] was a Bengali Baul saint, mystic, songwriter, social reformer and thinker. Considered an archetypal icon of Bengali culture, Lalon inspired and influenced many poets, social and religious thinkers including Rabindranath Tagore,[2][3][4] Kazi Nazrul Islam,[5] and Allen Ginsberg[6] albeit he “rejected all distinctions of caste and creed”.[7] Widely celebrated as an epitome of religious tolerance, he was also accused of heresy during his lifetime and after his death. In his songs, Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia envisioned a society where all religions and beliefs would stay in harmony. He founded the institute known as Lalon Akhrah in Cheuriya, about 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) from Kushtia railway station. His disciples dwell mostly in Bangladesh and West Bengal. Every year on the occasion of his death anniversary, thousands of his disciples and devotees assemble at Lalon Akhrah, and pay homage to the departed guru through celebration and discussion of his songs and philosophy for three days.[7] In 2004, Lalon was placed at number 12 in the BBC’s poll of the Greatest Bengali of All Time.[8][9]

There are few reliable sources for the details of Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia’s early life as he was reticent in revealing his past.[2] It is not known whether he was born in a Hindu or a Muslim family.[11] Lalon had no formal education.[12]

One account relates that Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia, during a pilgrimage to the temple of Jagannath with others of his native village, he contracted smallpox and was abandoned by his companions on the banks of the Kaliganga River,[13] from where Malam Shah and his wife Matijan, members of the weaver community in a Muslim-populated village, Cheuriya, took him to their home to convalesce. They gave Lalon land to live where he founded a musical group and remained to compose and perform his songs, inspired by Shiraj Sain, a musician of that village. Lalon lost the sight of his one eye in smallpox.[11] Researchers note that Lalon was a close friend of Kangal Harinath, one of the contemporary social reformers and was a disciple of Lalon.[14]

Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia lived within the zamindari of the Tagores in Kushtia and had visited the Tagore family.[15] It is said that zamindar Jyotirindranath Tagore sketched the only portrait of Lalon in 1889 in his houseboat on the river Padma.[16][17] Lalon died at Chheuriya on 17 October 1890 at the age of 116. The news of his death was first published in the newspaper Gram Barta Prokashika, run by Kangal Harinath.[18] Lalon was buried at the middle of his dwelling place known as his Akhra.[19]

Philosophy[edit] of Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia:

How does the Unknown bird go,
into the cage and out again,
Could I but seize it,
I would put the fetters of my heart,
around its feet.
The cage has eight rooms and nine closed doors;
From time to time fire flares out;.
Above there is a main room,
The mirror-chamber

— Lalon’s song translated by Brother James

plying songs at akhrabari

Disciples practicing lalon song at his Akhra

Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia was against religious conflict and many of his songs mock identity politics that divide communities and generate violence.[20] He even rejected nationalism at the apex of the anti-colonial nationalist movements in the Indian subcontinent.[21] He did not believe in classes or castes, the fragmented, hierarchical society, and took a stand against racism.[22] Lalon does not fit the “mystical” or “spiritual” type who denies all worldly affairs in search of the soul: he embodies the socially transformative role of sub-continental bhakti and sufism. He believed in the power of music to alter the intellectual and emotional state in order to be able to understand and appreciate life itself.

The texts of his songs engage in philosophical discourses of Bengal, continuing Tantric traditions of the Indian subcontinent, particularly Nepal, Bengal and the Gangetic plains. He appropriated various philosophical positions emanating from Hindu, Jainist, Buddhist and Islamic traditions, developing them into a coherent discourse without falling into eclecticism or syncretism. He explicitly identified himself with the Nadiya school, with Advaita Acharya, Nityananda and Chaitanya. He was greatly influenced by the social movement initiated by Chaitanya against differences of caste, creed and religion. His songs reject any absolute standard of right and wrong and show the triviality of any attempt to divide people whether materially or spiritually.

Works[edit] of Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia:

Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia composed numerous songs and poems, which describe his philosophy. It is estimated that Lalon composed about 2,000 – 10,000 songs, of which only about 800 songs are generally considered authentic.[23] Lalon left no written copies of his songs, which were transmitted orally and only later transcribed by his followers. Also, most of his followers could not read or write either, so few of his songs are found in written form.[24] Rabindranath Tagore published some of the Lalon song in the monthly Prabasi magazine of Kolkata.[25]

Among his most popular songs are

  • Shob Loke Koy Lalon Ki Jat Shongshare,
  • Khachar Bhitor Ochin Pakhi kyamne ashe jaay,
  • Jat Gelo Jat Gelo Bole,
  • Dekhna Mon Jhokmariay Duniyadari,
  • Pare Loye Jao Amai,
  • Milon Hobe Koto Dine,
  • Ar Amare Marishne Ma,
  • Tin Pagoler Holo Mela, etc.

Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia’s songs  aim at an indescribable reality beyond realism. He was observant of social conditions and his songs spoke of day-to-day problems in simple yet moving language. His philosophy was expressed orally, as well as through songs and musical compositions using folk instruments that could be made from materials available at home; the ektara (one-string musical instrument) and the duggi (drum).

Songs of Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia were mainly confined to the baul sects. After the Independence of Bangladesh, they reached the urban people through established singers. Many of them started using instruments other than the ektara and baya. Some started using classical bases for a polished presentation to appeal to the senses of the urban masses.

According to Farida Parveen, a renowned Lalon singer, the pronunciation of the words were also refined in order to make their meanings clearer, whereas the bauls’ pronunciations are likely to have local influence.[12]

Legacy and depictions in popular culture[edit] of Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia:

Lalon’s tomb

In 1963, a mausoleum and research centre were built at the site of his shrine in Kushtia, Bangladesh. Thousands of people come to the shrine (known in Bengali as an Akhra) twice a year, at Dol Purnima in the month of Falgun (February to March) and in October, on the occasion of the anniversary of Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia’death. During these three-day song melas, people, particularly Muslim fakirs and Bauls pay tribute. Among the modern singers of Baul music Farida Parveen and Anusheh Anadil are internationally known for singing Lalon songs.

Film and literature[edit] OF Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia:

Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia has been portrayed in literature, film, television drama, and in the theatre. The first biopic of Lalon titled Lalon Fakir (1973) was directed by Syed Hasan Imam.[26] Prosenjit portrayed Lalan in the Moner Manush, a 2010 Bengali film based on the life and philosophy of Lalon.[27] The film was an adaptation of Sunil Gangopadhyay‘s biographical novel of the same name. This film directed by Goutam Ghose, won award for the “best feature film on national integration” at the 58th Indian National Film Awards.[28] It also won Best Film prize at the 41st International Film Festival of India held at Goa from 22 Nov to 02 Dec 2010.[29]

In 2004, Tanvir Mokammel directed the film Lalon in which Raisul Islam Asad portrayed Lalon.[30]

Allen Ginsberg wrote a poem in 1992 named “After Lalon“, where he warned people against the dangers of fame and the attachments to the worldly things.[31]


References[edit]Fakir Lalon shi-A legend of Kshtia:

  1. Jump up^ Basantakumar Pal, Sri; Chowdhury, Abul Ahasan (Editor) (2012). Mahātmā Lālana Phakira (1. Bhāratīẏa saṃskaraṇa. ed.). Kalakātā: Gāṅacila. ISBN 9789381346280. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  2. ^ Jump up to:a b Caudhurī, Ābadula Āhasāna (1992). Lālana Śāha, 1774 – 1890 (1. punarmudraṇa. ed.). Ḍhākā: Bāṃlā Ekāḍemī. ISBN 9840725971. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  3. Jump up^ Urban, Hugh B. (2001). Songs of ecstasy tantric and devotional songs from colonial Bengal. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-19-513901-3. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  4. Jump up^ Tagore, Rabindranath; K. Stewart, Tony (Translation); Twichell, Chase (Translation) (2003). The lover of God. Port Townsend, Wash.: Consortium Book Sales & Dist. p. 94. ISBN 1556591969.
  5. Jump up^ Hossain, Abu Ishahaq (2009). Lalon Shah, the great poet. Dhaka: Palal Prokashoni. p. 148. ISBN 9846030673. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  6. Jump up^ Ginsberg, Allen; Foley, Jack (Winter–Spring 1998). “Same Multiple Identity: An Interview with Allen Ginsberg”. Discourse. Wayne State University Press. 20 (1/2, The Silent Beat): 158–181. ISSN 1522-5321. JSTOR 41389881.
  7. ^ Jump up to:a b Ahmed, Wakil; Karim, Anwarul (2012). “Lalon Shah”. In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (Second ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  8. Jump up^ “Listeners name ‘greatest Bengali'”. BBC News. 14 April 2004. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
  9. Jump up^ “Bangabandhu judged greatest Bangali of all time”. The Daily Star. Retrieved 25 June 2016.
  10. Jump up^ Lopez, Donald (1995). Religions in India in Practice – “Baul Songs”. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. pp. 187–208. ISBN 0-691-04324-8.
  11. ^ Jump up to:a b Seabrook, Jeremy (2001). Freedom unfinished : fundamentalism and popular resistance in Bangladesh today. London: Zed Books. p. 52. ISBN 1856499081. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  12. ^ Jump up to:a b Tamanna Khan (29 October 2010). “Lalon Purity vs Popularity”. The Daily Star. Retrieved 2015-07-01.
  13. Jump up^ Capwell, Charles (May 1988). “The popular expression of religious syncretism: the Bauls of Bengal as Apostles of Brotherhood”. Popular Music. Cambridge University Press. 7 (02): 123. doi:10.1017/S0261143000002701.
  14. Jump up^ Lorea, Carola Erika (2013). “‘Playing the Football of Love on the Field of the Body’: The Contemporary Repertoire of Baul Songs”. Religion and the Arts. Brill. 17 (4): 416–451. doi:10.1163/15685292-12341286. ISSN 1568-5292.
  15. Jump up^ Banerji, Debashish (2015). “Tagore Through Portraits: An Intersubjective Picture Gallery”. In Banerji, Debashish. Rabindranath Tagore in the 21st Century. Sophia Studies in Cross-cultural Philosophy of Traditions and Cultures. Volume 7. Springer India. pp. 243–264. doi:10.1007/978-81-322-2038-1_17. ISBN 978-81-322-2037-4.
  16. Jump up^ “Fakir Lalon Shai … 120 years on”. The Daily Star. Retrieved 2015-06-30.
  17. Jump up^ “Interview: Bengali Film Actor Priyangshu Chatterjee”. Washington Bangla Radio USA. Retrieved 2015-06-30.
  18. Jump up^ “Fakir Lalon Shai …123 years on”. Retrieved 2015-06-30.
  19. Jump up^ “Lalon memorial festival begins in Kushtia today”. The Financial Express. Dhaka. Retrieved 2015-06-30.
  20. Jump up^ L. Parshall, Philip (10 April 2007). Bridges to Islam A Christian Perspective on Folk Islam. InterVarsity Press. p. 89. ISBN 0830856153. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  21. Jump up^ Muthukumaraswamy (Editor), M.D.; Kaushal, Molly (1 January 2004). Folklore, public sphere, and civil society. New Delhi: Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts. p. 161. ISBN 8190148141. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  22. Jump up^ Mazhar, Farhad; Buckles, Daniel (1 January 2007). Food sovereignty and uncultivated biodiversity in South Asia essays on the poverty and the wealth of the social landscape. New Delhi: Academic Foundation in association with International Development Research Centre. p. 69. ISBN 8171886140. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  23. Jump up^ Rahman, Syedur (27 April 2010). Historical Dictionary of Bangladesh. Scarecrow Press. p. 179. ISBN 0810874539.
  24. Jump up^ Lalon; Āhamada, Oẏākila (Editor) (2002). Lālana gīti samagra. Ḍhākā: Baipatra. p. 12. ISBN 9789848116463. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  25. Jump up^ Tofayell, Z. A. (1968). Lalon Shah and lyrics of the Padma. Dacca: Ziaunnahar. p. 144. OCLC 569538154. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  26. Jump up^ “Feature Film”. Banglapedia – the National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh. Asiatic Society, Dhaka. Retrieved 17 November 2016.
  27. Jump up^ Acharya, Anindita (3 March 2015). “Prosenjit Chatterjee starts an Indo-Bangladesh production”. Hindustan Times. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  28. Jump up^ “Moner Manush receives Indian National Film Award”. The Daily Star. 9 September 2011. Retrieved 2015-06-30.
  29. Jump up^ Singh, Shalini (2 December 2010). Moner Manush shines at IFFI”. The Hindustan Times. Retrieved 2015-06-30.
  30. Jump up^ “Tanvir Mokammel films screened in Morocco”. The Daily Star. Retrieved 2015-06-30.
  31. Jump up^ Raskin, Jonah (7 April 2004). American Scream Allen Ginsberg’s Howl and the Making of the Beat Generation. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 208. ISBN 0520939344. Retrieved 30 June 2015.

Language Movements 1952, ভাষা আন্দোলন, Bhasa Andolon

 Language Movement 1952, ভাষা আন্দোলন,

Bhasa Andolon

Language Movement 1952, moreover insinuated as the Language Movement (Bengali: ভাষা আন্দোলন, Bhasa Andolon), Language Movement 1952, was a political advancement in past East Bengal (today Bangladesh) supporting the reputation of the Bengali dialect development 1952 as an official vernacular of the then-Dominion of Pakistan to permit its use in government issues, the continuation of its usage as a medium of guideline, its use in media, money and stamps, and to keep up its composed work inside the Bengali script. Dialect Movement 1952 , Rastro Vashha Andolon 1948-1952.

21 March, 1948 Mohammad Ali Jinnah, the organizer of Pakistan and its first Governor-General, on a visit to East Bengal, proclaims in Dhaka University assembly that while the dialect of the area can be Bengali, the “State dialect of Pakistan will be Urdu and no other dialect. Any one who tries to deceive you is truly a foe of Pakistan.” “The comment evoked a furious challenge from the Bengali youth Prof. Md. Yaqub announced “NO” who took it as an attack: their dialect Bangla (Bengali) was, all things considered, talked by 54 percent of the number of inhabitants in Pakistan. Numerous University understudies raised the challenge trademark and was captured. The Dacca University grounds turned into the point of convergence for understudy gatherings in support of the Language Movement 1952.

Language Movement 1952 started in 1948 and achieved its peak in the executing of 21 February 1952, and finished in the reception of Bangla as one of the state dialects of Pakistan. The question in the matter of what might be the state dialect of Pakistan was raised instantly after its creation. The focal pioneers and the Urdu-talking learned people of Pakistan pronounced that urdu would be the state dialect of Pakistan, similarly as Hindi was the state dialect of India. The understudies and erudite people of East Pakistan, notwithstanding, requested that Bangla be made one of the state dialects. After a great deal of ion over the dialect issue, the last request from East Pakistan was that Bangla must be the official dialect and the medium of direction in East Pakistan and for the focal government it would be one of the state dialects alongside Urdu. The primary development on this issue was prepared by Tamaddun Majlish headed by Professor Abul Kashem. A 40 days long workshop (training camp) held and organized by Tamaddun Majlish headed by Professor Abul Kashem, organized by Mr. Abdul Gafur, and Prof. Md. Yaqub. Bit by bit numerous other non-shared and dynamic associations joined the development, which at long last transformed into a mass development.

In the meantime, authentic arranging was being taken in various social occasions of the central organization of Pakistan under the action of Fazlur Rahman, the central guideline pastor, to make Urdu the primary state tongue of Pakistan. On receipt of this information, East Pakistani understudies got the chance to be particularly incited and held a meeting on the Dhaka University grounds on 6 December 1947, asking for that Bangla be made one of the state vernaculars of Pakistan. The meeting was trailed by understudy parades and more fomentation. The principle Rastrabhasa Sangram Parishad (Language Action Committee) was formed towards the complete of December with Professor Nurul Huq Bhuiyan of Tamaddun Majlish as the convener.

The scholars of the University of Dhaka and different political activists defied the law and unionized a protest on 21st February 1952. Language Movement 1952 , rastro vashha andolon 1948-1952, reached its climax once police killed student demonstrators on that day. The deaths aggravated widespread civil unrest. after years of conflict, the central government relented and granted official standing to the Bangla language in 1956. In 1999, UN agency declared 21st February as International Mother Language Day, in tribute to the Language Movement 1952 and the ethno-linguistic rights of individuals round the world.

Bangla Language Movement in 1952

Bangla Language Movement in 1952

Language Heroes: Rafiq, Salam, Barkat, Jabbar.

Rafiq Uddin Ahmed: The eldest child of Abdul Latif Miyan and Rafiza Khatun, Shahid Rafique hailed from Paril a town in the Manikganj area. The Miyan family runs printing business, a business Rafiq was running in 1952. Rafique had four more youthful siblings: Rashid, Khaleque (a flexibility contender) Salam and Khorshed Alam. Rafique was recognized, since his youth, as a strong, upright, energetic social laborer with enthusiasm for music and theater. He organized and acted in different plays in the neighboring towns.

A beautiful cousin of his, flawless Rahela Khanom Panu from the nearby neighbor, was Rafiquw�s sweet heart. Their enthusiastic relationship was perceived by Rafique�s guardians and they composed their wedding. Joined by his nephew, Rafique went to Dhaka for looking for his inevitable wedding.

On 21st February 1952, albeit planned to return home with his shopping-sari, shirt, churies, alta (lac color), powder and a few adornments Rafique, because of his adoration for Bangla dialect, rather than going home, joined the challenge rally of Bangla Language Movement 1952 sorted out by the understudies of Dhaka college leaving his shopping with his nephew. His adoration for his first language outperformed his deep rooted enthusiasm for his sweet heart Panu to whom he stayed away forever as a prepare. Shot dead by the Paki cops in the dialect parade on 21st February, Rafique�s dead body was later dumped by the Paki commandos (who stole the dead assortments of dialect saints from Dhaka Medical school mortuary) in the Azimpur memorial park where a great many Bangalees paid their reverence the following morning.

Barkat (Abul Barkat): A MA last year understudy of the branch of political art of Dhaka University. Barkat was conceived on 16 June 1927 at Babla town of Murshidabad area in India. His father�s name was late Shamsuddin and his residential location Bishnu Priya Bhaban, Purana Paltan, Dhaka.

Salam (Abdus Salam): A staff individual from the mechanical directorate. Salam was shot on 21st February and kicked the bucket in Dhaka Medical College healing center on 17 April 1952. Father: Mohd Fajil Miah.

Jabbar (Abdul Jabbar): Bangla Language saint Abdul Jabbar was conceived on 26 Ashwin, 1326B (1927) in Pachua town, Gaforgaon, Mymensingh. His father�s name was Hasen Ali and mother�s name Safatun Nesa. Jabbar was the eldest child of his family. His tutoring began in 1333B (1934) at the Dhopaghat Krishibazar Primary school. Subsequent to completing year five at the elementary school, Jabbar quit school being annoyed with his dad and left home.

Jabbar, be that as it may, returned home following a couple of months. Be that as it may, later he exited for Rangun from Narayanganj. The skipper of the ship Jabbar boarded on to go to Ranguan guaranteed him work in the ship. In any case, he never landed the position because of weakness. Returning home, Jabbar composed a town guard assemble with young men from the area and took the drove the gathering as its officer. In 1949 he wedded one of his friends� sister, Amina Khatun, and settled down. One and a half year after the marriage Jabbar and Amina had a child kid. The kid was named Nurul Islam Badol.

In February 1952 Jabbar�s relative fell sick. Jabbar took her to Dhaka for treatment. With the assistance of one Sirajul Islam, a specialist from the neighboring town, Jabbar figured out how to concede his relative in Dhaka Medical College Hospital. In 1952 the Provincial Assembly of East Bangla was beside Dhaka Medical College Hospital.

Dhaka of February 1952 was a political fountain of liquid magma. Gatherings, parades, revives and picketing were ordinary occasions in the Dhaka college grounds. On 19 February, Jabbar withdrew of every one of his relatives. After supper while he was withdrawing from her close relative Aysha Khatun, she lovingly tied the catches of his shirt. Jabbar spent the night of 20 February at some Abdul Hai�s living arrangement.

In the morning of 21 February Jabbar went to healing facility to see his relative. In the wake of investing some energy with Dr Sirajul Islam, Jabbar went outside the healing center door to get a few organic products for the patient. The parade of dialect development was finishing outside. Swarms with searing eyes and thundering trademarks We request Bangla as state dialect transformed the college grounds into a battleground. The soul of the challenging group sucked Jabbar in inside a glimmer. Relative, healing facility, organic products all blurred far from his memory. Jabbar turned into the group, he conveyed the flag before the parade. At the point when the police opened fire, Jabbar being in the cutting edge, was one of the first to fall.

With Barkat and different saints of dialect development, Jabbar was quickly taken into the crisis. Jabbar inhaled his keep going while in transit to the operation theater: the primary saint to be unified with time everlasting.

Shafiur Rahman: 28 years of age High Court staff and a law understudy Shafiur Rahman was murdered by the Pakistani troops close to the Khoshmahal Restaurant close Rathkhola on Nababpur street. Shafiur Rahman was the father of a little girl and left behind his pregnant spouse and a major family subject to his pay. His father�s name was Maulabi Mahbubur Rahman and he was conceived in Konnagar town of the Hugli locale in India.

Ahi Ullah: Details of dialect saint Ahi Ullah are as yet obscure as the police later caught his dead body and dumped. He was the child of a developer named Habibur Rahman.

Abdul Awal: Abdul Awal passed on under the police truck used to scatter the memorial service parade of the saints of the Bangla dialect development.

A unidentified kid: Like Abdul Awal, this unidentified chap was keep running over by the police truck used to scatter the memorial service parade of the saints of the Bangla Language Movement 1952. His demise was never recognized by the Pakistani government.



Daily Howa, Kushtia


1. Late Prof. Md. Yaqub. (Sharok lipy author; submitted to PAK Government. 3 duplicates in BANGLA out of 11 and harmed by two slugs and conceded in Dhaka restorative ) Member Tamuddin Mojlish, Bangladesh, President 1948-1953Tamuddin Mojlish, Kushtia, Bangladesh. Furthermore, in 1948 he is the man who first dissents and announced “NO”  when President Zinna said Urdu will be dialect of Pakistan.

2. Late Prof. Abdus Sattar (Sharok lipy essayist; submetted to PAK Government. two duplicate in English out of 11 and harmed by machine chaanrge conceded in Dhaka medicinal ) Member Tamuddin Mojlish, Bangladesh, Secretary 1948-1953 Tamuddin Mojlish, Kushtia, Bangladesh; President 1953-Tamuddin Mojlish, Kushtia,

3. Late Mr. Sheraj (Mukter), MemberTamuddin Mojlish, Kushtia, Bangladesh..

4. Late Mr. Zalal Chowdhury.

5. Mr. Nazam uddin ahmed, Secretary, from  1953 to —-, Tamuddin Mojlish, Kushtia, Bangladesh.

6. Advocate Liakot Ali.

7. Late Md. Zulfikar Haider.


Language Movement 1952


The Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was in session at Karachi-then the capital of Pakistan-from 23 February 1948. It was prescribed that the people would need to talk either in Urdu or in English at the Assembly. Dhirendranath datta, a section from the East Pakistan Congress Party, moved a change development to fuse Bangla as one of the lingos of the Constituent Assembly. He saw that out of the 6 crore 90 lakh people of Pakistan, 4 crore 40 lakh were from East Pakistan with Bangla as their local dialect. The central pioneers, including Liaquat Ali Khan, PM of Pakistan, and Khwaja Nazimuddin, manager pastor of East Bengal, negated the development. On tolerating the news that the development had been rejected, understudies, savvy individuals and government authorities of East Pakistan got the chance to be unmistakably incited. Every day papers, for instance, the Azad furthermore investigated of the lawmakers who had rejected the Language Movement 1952.

Another leading group of trustees to fight for Bangla as the state vernacular was formed with Shamsul Huq as convener. On 11 March 1948 a general strike was found in the towns of East Pakistan in difference against the rejection of Bangla from the tongues of the Constituent Assembly, the nonappearance of Bangla letters in Pakistani coins and stamps, and the usage of only Urdu in selection tests for the maritime constrain. The advancement furthermore rehashed the before demand that Bangla be announced one of the state language of Pakistan and the official tongue of East Pakistan. Amidst parades, picketing and trademarks, pioneers, for instance, Shawkat Ali, Kazi Golam Mahboob, Shamsul Huq, Oli Ahad, Sheik Mujibur Rahman, Abdul Wahed and others were caught. Understudy pioneers, including Abdul Matin and Abdul Malek ukil, Prof. Md. Yakub, Prof. Abdus Sattar similarly took part in the parade and picketing.

Language Movement 1952 a meeting was held tight the Dhaka University premises. Mohammad Toaha was genuinely hurt while endeavoring to snatch away a rifle from a policeman and must be admitted to facility. Strikes were seen from 12 March to 15 March.

Under such conditions the lawmaking body expected to give in. Khwaja Nazimuddin agreed to a plan with the understudy pioneers. Regardless, notwithstanding the way that he agreed to a few terms and conditions, he didn’t fit in with their demand that Bangla be made a state vernacular. muhammed ali jinnah, the delegate general of Pakistan, came to visit East Pakistan on 19 March. He tended to two get-togethers in Dhaka, in both of which he dismissed the notable enthusiasm for Bangla. He rehashed that Urdu would be the fundamental state tongue of Pakistan. This disclosure was quickly contradicted with the Language Movement 1952 spreading all through East Pakistan. The Dhaka University Language Action Committee was surrounded on 11 March 1950 with Abdul Matin as its convener.

By the begin of 1952, the Language Movement 1952 took a bona fide turn. Both Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan were dead-Jinnah on 11 September 1948 and Liaquat Ali Khan on 16 October 1951. Khwaja Nazimuddin had succeeded Liaquat Ali Khan as head manager of Pakistan. With the political crisis, the money related condition in East Pakistan moreover debilitated. The all inclusive community of East Pakistan started losing trust in the Muslim League. Another social event, the Awami Muslim League-which would later transform into the awami affiliation was surrounded under the activity of maulana abdul hamid khan bhasani in 1949. There was a creating sentiment hardship and abuse in East Pakistan and an affirmation that another sort of expansionism had supplanted British imperialism. Under these conditions, the Language Movement 1952 got another constrain in vernacular advancements 1952 .

On 27 January 1952, Khwaja Nazimuddin came to Dhaka from Karachi. Tending to a meeting at Paltan Maidan, he said that the overall public of the locale could pick what may be the typical lingo, yet just Urdu would be the state vernacular of Pakistan. There was a quick, negative reaction to this talk among the understudies who responded with the witticism, ‘Rashtrabhasha Bangla Chai’ (We require Bangla as the state lingo).

A strike was seen at Dhaka University on 30 January. The representatives of various political and social affiliations held a meeting on 31 January drove by Moulana Bhasani. An All-Party Central Language Action Committee was confined with Kazi Golam Mahboob as its convener. Starting at now the organization in like manner recommended that Bangla be created in Arabic script. This suggestion was moreover energetically limited. The Language Action Committee got a hartal and deal with presentations and parades on February 21 all through East Pakistan.

As courses of action for displays were in advance, the organization constrained Section 144 in the city of Dhaka, limiting all gatherings and showings. A meeting of the Central Language Action Committee was held tight 20 February under the chairmanship of Abul Hashim. Supposition was isolated in the matter of paying little heed to whether to harm Section 144. Language Movement 1952.

Students gathering on a road in Dhaka University on 22 February 1952 as the result of language movements 1952
  1. Siddiq Salik, Witness to Surrender, Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan, 1977
  2. Rafiqul Islam, A Tale of Millions, Ananna, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 3rd edition, 1986
  3. Md. Abdul Wadud Bhuiyan, Emergence of Bangladesh and Role of Awami League, Vikas Publishing House, Delhi, India, 1982
  4. Hasan Zaheer, The Separation of East Pakistan – The Rise and Realization of Bengali Muslim Nationalism, Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan, 1994
  5. Talukder Maniruzzaman, The Bangladesh Revolution and its Aftermath, Bangladesh Books International Ltd., Dhaka, Bangladesh, 1980
  6. Daily Howa, Kushtia.






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It was only a few years best bag  back that we were all prematurely declaring the death of the PC, thanks to the swarm of tablet computers that flooded market following the lead of the iPad in 2010. While a handful of these slates saw success, many did not.

As market interest began to fade, best bag and many former tablet enthusiasts turned their heads to Chromebooks and 2-in-1 devices. Meanwhile, those interested in slim  designs and lengthy  battery lives were given the choice to pick up a thin-and-light Ultrabook, though hardy gaming machines like the Origin EVO15-S still remain.

That said, the versatility of convertibles like the Acer Swift 7 comes in handy for more than just creative types. For instance, if you’ve ever wanted to binge-watch a Netflix show in bed, a 2-in-1 notebook can mean doing so with or without the obstruction of a physical keyboard.

Despite the barrage of choices, finding the best laptop and best bag to suit your needs doesn’t have to be a chore. To help you complete your laptop checklist, we’ve compiled a definitive list of the 15 best laptops you can spend your money on today.

1. Dell XPS 13

Still first-rate, now with Kaby Lake

CPU: Intel Core i3 – i7 | Graphics: Intel HD Graphics 620 | Screen: 13.3-inch FHD (1,920 x 1,080) – QHD+ (3,200 x 1,800) | Storage: 128GB – 512GB SSD

Faster than ever
Same long-lasting battery
Still poor webcam position
No Windows Hello

With the 2016 model, the Dell XPS 13 reigns supreme as the best laptop you can buy today. Thin and light with a battery life that exceeds 7 hours, according to our movie test, Dell’s flagship laptop is the posterchild for Ultrabooks. Once again, too, Dell has managed to squeeze a 13.3-inch screen into an 11-inch frame, proving the nigh-borderless InfinityEdge display to be a design marvel. Outfitted with Intel’s latest Kaby Lake processors and lightning-fast storage and memory, the Dell XPS 13 is dressed to impress with welcome addition of a Rose Gold color option as well. It should comes as no surprise, then, that we still rank it as the best Ultrabook and best laptop ad best bag overall.

Read the full review: Dell XPS 13

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2. Asus ZenBook UX305

Better than the MacBook and at a fraction of the price

CPU: Intel Core Intel Core M3-6Y30 – M7-6Y75 | Graphics: Intel HD Graphics 515 | RAM: 8GB | Screen: 13.3-inch, FHD (1,920 x 1,080) – QHD+ (3200 x 1800) IPS display | Storage: 256GB – 512GB SSD

Incredibly thin and light
Vibrant, glare-free screen
Weak sauce graphics
Tinny speakers

If you’re looking for a Windows alternative to Apple’s latest rose-tinted MacBook, the Asus ZenBook UX305 might be more your speed. Though it looks like a Cupertino design from every angle, it’s actually superior to Apple’s creations in almost every way. From its purple-tinged aluminum design to its sharp display and hearty helping of built-in storage space, the UX305 puts Windows back in style, fanless design, long battery life and all. and best bag And, while the low-cost is enticing, if you’re shopping for something with a bit more horsepower (not to mention an even more compact design), look no further than the Asus ZenBook 3.

Read the full review: Asus ZenBook UX305

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3. Razer Blade Stealth

The gaming Ultrabook you’ve been waiting for

CPU: Intel Core i7 | Graphics: Intel HD Graphics 620 | RAM: 8GB – 16GB | Screen: 12.5-inch, QHD+ (2,560 x 1,440) – 4K (3,840 x 2,160) IGZO LED-backlit multi-touch | Storage: 128GB – 1TB SSD

Captivating, colorful display
Greatly improved battery life
Cumbersome charger
Keyboard needs more travel

The Razer Blade Stealth is an exceptional Ultrabook hindered only by its efforts in trying to be a gaming laptop. Price-wise, it has the upperhand against key competitors, but don’t be fooled – with an Intel Kaby Lake Core i7 processor, the latest Blade Stealth is more powerful and power-efficient than ever. Better yet, this laptop can change the lighting of each key on its keyboard, with more than 16.8 million colors to choose from. Plus, if you mind the integrated graphics from Intel, you can attach a (albeit rather pricey) Razer Core external GPU enclosure for boosted performance when stationary.

Read the full review: Razer Blade Stealth